Because the allotropic behavior of titanium allows diverse changes in microstructures by variations in thermomechanical processing, a broad range of properties and applications can be served with a minimum number of titanium grades. This is especially true for the titanium alloys with a two-phase a+ß crystal structure.
The most widely used titanium grade is the Ti-6Al-4V alpha-beta alloy. This titanium alloy is well understood and is also very tolerant of variations in fabrication operations, despite its relatively poor room-temperature shaping and forming characteristics as compared to steel and aluminum. Titanium grade Ti-6Al-4V, which has limited section size hardenability, is most commonly used in the annealed condition.
Commercially pure titanium grades 1, 2, 3 and 4 are available in bar and billet. The following titanium grades are also commonly available in bar and billet form: Ti-6Al-4V (grades 5 and 24), Ti-5Al-2.5Sn (grade 6), Ti-0.2Pd (grades 7 and 11), Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Zr-4Mo (also known as BETA-C), Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo, Ti-8Al- 1Mo-1V, Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn, Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al (TIMETAL 10.2.3), Ti-4Al-4Mo-2Sn (IMI 550), Ti-4Al-4Mo-4Sn-0.5Si-0.1C (IMI 551), Ti-15Mo (IMI 205) and TIMETAL 100.
Titanium alloys available in casting form include commercially pure titanium grades 2, 3, 4, Ti-6Al-4V (grades 5 and 24), Ti-0.2Pd (grade 7), Ti-5Al-2.5Sn (grade 6), Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al (TIMETAL 15.3), TIMETAL 1100 and Ti-5.8Al-4Sn-3.5Zr-0.7Nb (IMI 834).
By application, titanium alloys can be divided into three main groups: corrosion resistant, high strength and high temperature grades. Three structural types of titanium alloys are alpha alloys, alpha-beta alloys, and beta or near-beta alloys.
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