Solid state welding is a group of welding processes which produces
coalescence at temperatures essentially below the melting point of the
base materials being joined, without the addition of brazing filler metal.
Pressure may or may not be used. These processes are sometimes erroneously
called solid state bonding processes: this group of welding processes
includes cold welding, diffusion welding, explosion welding, forge welding,
friction welding, hot pressure welding, roll welding, and ultrasonic welding.
In all of these processes time, temperature, and pressure individually
or in combination produce coalescence of the base metal without significant
melting of the base metals.
Solid state welding includes some of the very oldest of the welding
processes and some of the very newest. Some of the processes offer
certain advantages since the base metal does not melt and form a nugget.
The metals being joined retain their original properties without the
heat-affected zone problems involved when there is base metal melting.
When dissimilar metals are joined their thermal expansion and conductivity
is of much less importance with solid state welding than with the arc
Time, temperature, and pressure are involved; however, in some processes
the time element is extremely short, in the microsecond range or up to a
few seconds. In other cases, the time is extended to several hours. As
temperature increases time is usually reduced. Since each of these processes
is different each will be described.
Cold Welding (CW)
Cold welding is a solid state welding process which uses pressure at room
temperature to produce coalescence of metals with substantial deformation
at the weld.
Welding is accomplished by using extremely high pressures on extremely
clean interfacing materials. Sufficiently high pressure can be obtained
with simple hand tools when extremely thin materials are being joined.
When cold welding heavier sections a press is usually required to exert
sufficient pressure to make a successful weld.
Indentations are usually made in the parts being cold welded.
The process is readily adaptable to joining ductile metals. Aluminum and
copper are readily cold welded. Aluminum and copper can be joined together
by cold welding.
Diffusion Welding (DFW)
Diffusion welding is a solid state welding process which produces
coalescence of the faying surfaces by the application of pressure and
elevated temperatures. The process does not involve microscopic deformation
melting or relative motion of the parts. Filler metal may or may not be
used. This may be in the form of electroplated surfaces.
The process is used for joining refractory metals at temperatures that
do not affect their metallurgical properties. Heating is usually
accomplished by induction, resistance, or furnace. Atmosphere and
vacuum furnaces are used and for most refractory metals a protective
inert atmosphere is desirable.
Successful welds have been made on refractory metals at temperatures
slightly over half the normal melting temperature of the metal. To
accomplish this type of joining extremely close tolerance joint preparation
is required and a vacuum or inert atmosphere is used. The process is used
quite extensively for joining dissimilar metals. The process is considered
diffusion brazing when a layer of filler material is placed between the
faying surfaces of the parts being joined. These processes are used
primarily by the aircraft and aerospace industries.
Explosion Welding (EXW)
Explosion welding is a solid state welding process in which
coalescence is effected by high-velocity movement together of the parts
to be joined produced by a controlled detonation. Even though heat is
not applied in making an explosion weld it appears that the metal at
the interface is molten during welding.
This heat comes from several sources, from the shock wave associated
with impact and from the energy expended in collision. Heat is also
released by plastic deformation associated with jetting and ripple
formation at the interface between the parts being welded. Plastic
interaction between the metal surfaces is especially pronounced when
surface jetting occurs. It is found necessary to allow the metal to
flow plastically in order to provide a quality weld.
Explosion welding creates a strong weld between almost all metals.
It has been used to weld dissimilar metals that were not weldable by
the arc processes. The weld apparently does not disturb the effects
of cold work or other forms of mechanical or thermal treatment. The
process is self-contained, it is portable, and welding can be achieved
quickly over large areas. The strength of the weld joint is equal to or
greater than the strength of the weaker of the two metals joined.
Explosion welding has not become too widely used except in a few limited
fields. One of the most widely used applications of explosion welding
has been in the cladding of base metals with thinner alloys. Another
application for explosion welding is in the joining of tube-to-tube
sheets for the manufacture of heat exchangers. The process is also
used as a repair tool for repairing leaking tube-to-tube sheet joints.
Another and new application has been the joining of pipes in a socket
joint. This application will be of increasing importance in the future.
Forge Welding (FOW)
Forge welding is a solid state welding process which produces
coalescence of metals by heating them in a forge and by applying
pressure or blows sufficient to cause permanent deformation at the
This is one of the older welding processes and at one time was called
hammer welding. Forge welds made by blacksmiths were made by heating
the parts to be joined to a red heat considerably below the molten
temperature. Normal practice was to apply flux to the interface. The
blacksmith by skillful use of a hammer and an anvil was able to create
pressure at the faying surfaces sufficient to cause coalescence. This
process is of minor industrial significance today.
Friction Welding (FRW)
Friction welding is a solid state welding process which produces
coalescence of materials by the heat obtained from mechanically-induced
sliding motion between rubbing surfaces. The work parts are held together
under pressure. This process usually involves the rotating of one part
against another to generate frictional heat at the junction. When a suitable
high temperature has been reached, rotational motion ceases and additional
pressure is applied and coalescence occurs.
There are two variations of the friction welding process. In the original
process one part is held stationary and the other part is rotated by a
motor which maintains an essentially constant rotational speed. The two
parts are brought in contact under pressure for a specified period of time
with a specific pressure. Rotating power is disengaged from the rotating
piece and the pressure is increased. When the rotating piece stops the weld
is completed. This process can be accurately controlled when speed,
pressure, and time are closely regulated.
The other variation is called inertia welding. Here a flywheel is revolved
by a motor until a preset speed is reached. It, in turn, rotates one of the
pieces to be welded. The motor is disengaged from the flywheel and the other
part to be welded is brought in contact under pressure with the rotating
piece. During the predetermined time during which the rotational speed of
the part is reduced the flywheel is brought to an immediate stop and
additional pressure is provided to complete the weld.
Both methods utilize frictional heat and produce welds of similar quality.
Slightly better control is claimed with the original process.
Among the advantages of friction welding is the ability to produce high
quality welds in a short cycle time. No filler metal is required and
flux is not used. The process is capable of welding most of the common
metals. It can also be used to join many combinations of dissimilar metals.
Friction welding requires relatively expensive apparatus similar to a
machine tool. There are three important factors involved in making a
Normally for friction welding one of the parts to be welded is round
in cross section; however, this is not an absolute necessity. Visual
inspection of weld quality can be based on the flash, which occurs
around the outside perimeter of the weld. Normally this flash will
extend beyond the outside diameter of the parts and will curl around
back toward the part but will have the joint extending beyond the
outside diameter of the part. If the flash sticks out relatively
straight from the joint it is an indication that the time was too
short, the pressure was too low, or the speed was too high. These
joints may crack. If the flash curls too far back on the outside
diameter it is an indication that the time was too long and the
pressure was too high. Between these extremes is the correct flash shape.
The flash is normally removed after welding.
- The rotational speed which is related to the material to be
welded and the diameter of the weld at the interface.
- The pressure between the two parts to be welded. Pressure changes
during the weld sequence. At the start it is very low, but it is
increased to create the frictional heat. When the rotation is stopped
pressure is rapidly increased so that forging takes place immediately
before or after rotation is stopped.
- The welding time. Time is related to the shape and the type of metal
and the surface area. It is normally a matter of a few seconds. The actual
operation of the machine is automatic and is controlled by a sequence
controller which can be set according to the weld schedule established
for the parts to be joined.
Hot Pressure Welding (HPW)
Hot pressure welding is a solid state welding process which produces
coalescence of materials with heat and the application of pressure
sufficient to produce macro-deformation of the base metal.
In this process coalescence occurs at the interface between the parts
because of pressure and heat which is accompanied by noticeable deformation.
The deformation of the surface cracks the surface oxide film and increases
the areas of clean metal. Welding this metal to the clean metal of the
abutting part is accomplished by diffusion across the interface so that
coalescence of the faying surface occurs. This type of operation is
normally carried on in closed chambers where vacuum or a shielding
medium may be used. It is used primarily in the production of weldments
for the aerospace industry. A variation is the hot isostatic pressure
welding method. In this case, the pressure is applied by means of a hot
inert gas in a pressure vessel.
Roll Welding (ROW)
Roll welding is a solid state welding process which produces
coalescence of metals by heating and by applying pressure with rolls
sufficient to cause deformation at the faying surfaces. This process
is similar to forge welding except that pressure is applied by means
of rolls rather than by means of hammer blows. Coalescence occurs at
the interface between the two parts by means of diffusion at the
One of the major uses of this process is the cladding of mild or
low-alloy steel with a high-alloy material such as stainless steel.
It is also used for making bimetallic materials for the instrument
Ultrasonic Welding (USW)
Ultrasonic welding is a solid state welding process which produces
coalescence by the local application of high-frequency vibratory
energy as the work parts are held together under pressure. Welding
occurs when the ultrasonic tip or electrode, the energy coupling device,
is clamped against the work pieces and is made to oscillate in a plane
parallel to the weld interface.
The combined clamping pressure and oscillating forces introduce dynamic
stresses in the base metal. This produces minute deformations which
create a moderate temperature rise in the base metal at the weld zone.
This coupled with the clamping pressure provides for coalescence across
the interface to produce the weld. Ultrasonic energy will aid in
cleaning the weld area by breaking up oxide films and causing them
to be carried away.
The vibratory energy that produces the minute deformation comes from a
transducer which converts high-frequency alternating electrical energy
into mechanical energy. The transducer is coupled to the work by various
types of tooling which can range from tips similar to resistance welding
tips to resistance roll welding electrode wheels. The normal weld is the
lap joint weld.
The temperature at the weld is not raised to the melting point and
therefore there is no nugget similar to resistance welding. Weld
strength is equal to the strength of the base metal. Most ductile
metals can be welded together and there are many combinations of
dissimilar metals that can be welded. The process is restricted to
relatively thin materials normally in the foil or extremely thin
This process is used extensively in the electronics, aerospace, and
instrument industries. It is also used for producing packages and
containers and for sealing them.
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