Commercially pure titanium and most of titanium alloys can be welded by
procedures and equipment used in welding austenitic stainless steel
and aluminum. Because of the high reactivity of titanium and titanium
alloys at temperatures above 550°C, additional precautions must be
applied to shield the weldment from contact with air. Also, titanium
base metal and filler metal must be clean to avoid contamination
Unalloyed titanium and all alpha titanium alloys are weldable. Although
the alpha-beta alloy Ti-6Al-4V and other weakly beta-stabilised alloys
are also weldable, strongly beta-stabilised alpha-beta alloys are
embrittled by welding. Most beta alloys can be welded, but because
aged welds in beta alloys can be quite brittle, heat treatment to
strengthen the weld by age hardening should be used with caution.
Unalloyed titanium is generally available in several grades,
ranging in purity from 98.5 to 99.5% Ti. These grades are strengthened
by variations in oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and iron. Strengthening by
cold working is possible but is seldom used. All grades are usually
welded in the annealed condition. Welding of cold-worked alloys
anneals the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and eliminates the strength
produced by cold working.
Alpha alloys Ti-5Al-2.5Sn, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo, Ti-5Al-5Sn-2Zr-2Mo,
Ti-6Al-2Nb-1Ta-1Mo, and Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V are always welded in the annealed
A1pha-beta alloys of Ti-6A1-4V can be welded in the annealed condition
or in the solution-treated and partially aged condition, with ageing
completed during postweld stress relieving. In contrast to unalloyed
titanium and the alpha alloys, which can be strengthened only by
cold work, the alpha-beta and beta alloys can be strengthened by
The low weld ductility of most alpha-beta alloys is caused by phase
transformation in the weld zone or in the HAZ. Alpha-beta alloys can
be welded autogeneously or with various filler metals. It is common
to weld some of the lower alloyed materials with matching filler metals.
Filler metal of an equivalent grade or one grade lower is used to
ensure good weld strength and ductility. Filler metal of matching
composition is used to weld the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. This extra
low-interstitial (ELI) grade improves ductility and toughness.
The use of filler metals that improve ductility may not prevent
embrittlement of the HAZ in susceptible alloys. In addition,
low-alloy welds can be embrittled by hydride precipitation.
However, with proper joint preparation, filler-metal storage,
and shielding, hydride precipitation can be avoided.
Metastable beta alloys Ti-3Al-13V-11Cr, Ti-11.5Mo-6Zr-4.5Sn,
Ti-8Mo-8V-2Fe-3Al, Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn, and Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Zr-4Mo
are weldable in the annealed or solution heat treated condition.
In the as-welded condition, welds are 1ow in strength but ductile.
Beta alloy weldments are sometimes used in the as-welded condition.
Welds in the Ti-3Al-13V-11Cr alloy embrittle more severely when age
hardened. To obtain full strength, the metastable beta alloys are
welded in the annealed condition; the weld is cold worked by
planishing, and the weldment is then solution treated and aged.
This procedure also obtains adequate ductility in the weld.
Fluxes cannot be used with these processes because they combine
with titanium to cause brittleness and may reduce corrosion resistance.
The welding processes that use fluxes are electroslag welding,
submerged arc welding, and flux-cored arc welding.
These processes have been used on a limited basis.
However, they are not considered to be economical because they require
high-cost, fluoride-base fluxes.
The following fusion-welding processes are used for joining titanium and
- Gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW)
- Gas-metal arc welding (GMAW)
- Plasma arc welding (PAW)
- Electron-beam welding (EBW)
- Laser-beam welding (LBW)
- Friction welding (FRW)
- Resistance welding (RW)
Gas-tungsten arc welding is the most widely used process for
joining titanium and titanium alloys except for parts with
thick sections. Square-groove butt joints can be welded without
filler metal in base metals up to 2.5 mm thick. For thicker base
metals, the joint should be grooved, and filler metal is required.
The heated weld metal in the weld zone must be shielded from the
atmosphere to prevent contamination with oxygen, nitrogen, and
carbon, which will degrade the weldment ductility.
Gas-metal arc welding is used to join titanium and titanium
alloys more than 3 mm thick. It is applied using pulsed current or
the spray mode and is less costly than GTAW, especially when the base
metal thickness is greater than 13 mm.
Plasma arc welding is also applicable to joining titanium and
titanium alloys. It is faster than GTAW and can be used on
thicker sections, such as one-pass welding of plate up to 13 mm
thick, using keyhole techniques.
Electron-beam welding is used in the aircraft and aerospace industries
for producing high-quality welds in titanium and titanium alloy plates
ranging from 6 mm to more than 76 mm thick. Because the welding is
performed in a high-vacuum atmosphere, low contamination of the
weldment is achieved.
Laser-beam welding is increasingly being used to join titanium
and titanium alloys. Square-butt weld joint configurations can be used,
and the welding process does not require the use of vacuum chambers;
gas shielding is still required. This process is more limited than
electron-beam welding regarding base metal thickness, which cannot
usually exceed 13 mm.
Friction welding is useful in joining tube, pipe, or rods,
where joint cleanliness can be achieved without shielding.
Resistance welding is used to join titanium and titanium
alloy sheet by either spot welds or continuous seam welds. The process
is also used for welding titanium sheet to dissimilar metals, that is,
cladding titanium to carbon or stainless steel plate.
Filler material and electrodes
Filler-metal composition is usually matched to the grade of titanium
being welded. For improved joint ductility in welding the higher
strength grades of unalloyed titanium, filler metal of yield strength
lower than that of the base metal is occasionally used. Because of the
dilution that occurs during welding, the weld deposit acquires the
required strength. Unalloyed filler metal is sometimes used to weld
Ti-5A1-2.5Sn and Ti-6A1-4V for improved joint ductility.
The use of unalloyed filler metals 1owers the beta content of the
weldment, thereby reducing the extent of the transformation that
occurs and improving ductility. Engineering approval, however, is
recommended when using pure filler metal to ensure that the weld
meets strength requirements.
Another option is filler metal containing lower interstitial content
(oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon) or alloying contents that are
lower than the base metal being used. The use of filler metals that
improve ductility does not preclude embrittlement of the HAZ in
susceptible alloys. In addition, low-alloy welds may enhance the
possibility of hydrogen embrittlement.
Shielding gases in welding titanium and titanium alloys are
only argon and helium, and occasionally ? mixture of these two
gases is used for shielding. Because it is more readily available
and less costly, argon is more widely used.
Electrodes. The conventional thoriated tungsten types of
electrodes (EWTh-1 or EWTh-2) are used for GTAW of titanium.
Electrode size is governed by the smallest diameter able to
carry the welding current. To improve arc initiation and
control the spread of the arc, the electrode should be ground to a point.
The electrode may extend one and a half times the size of the
diameter beyond the end of the nozzle.
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